Chapter 9: Adding Visual Appeal

Working with Photos & Illustrations

Adding Visual Appeal | White Space is Not Your Enemy Chapter 9

Chapter Outline

  • Image content
  • Resolution, file format & size
  • Choosing more than one photo
  • Ethics of shooting & editing
  • Diversity as craft excellence
  • Where to get photos
  • Where not to get photos
  • Alternatives to photos
  • Try this

Keywords | Vocabulary

  • Asymmetrical balance
  • Bitmap
  • Callout
  • Comp image (complimentary image)
  • Cropping
  • Depth of field
  • Detail shot
  • Dodging & burning
  • dpi (dots per inch) & ppi (pixels per inch)
  • EPS (encapsulated postscript)
  • Establishing shot
  • File format, file size & image resolution
  • GIF (graphic interchange format)
  • JPG (joint photographic experts group)
  • Lift-out
  • Optimization/optimizing, file
  • PNG (portable network graphics)
  • Pull quote
  • Rendered type
  • Rights-managed image
  • Royalty-free image
  • Rule of thirds
  • SVG (scalable vector graphic)
  • TIF (tagged image format)
  • Vector graphic

Related Assets

Most students have been working with electronic images since they can remember. And that’s the problem. Students already have developed persistent bad habits—from poor composition and incorrect file formatting—to inappropriate image alterations and outright image theft. Here we go back to the beginning to teach the basics in terms of technique and ethics.

Key Student Takeaways

  1. When choosing visuals, begin with the highest possible quality.
  2. Choose well-composed photos with a clear subjects.
  3. For image resolution, choose:
  • 300 dpi for high-end printing.
  • 200 dpi for lower-end printing.
  • 72 dpi for quick-loading Web graphics.
  1. For file format, choose:
  • JPG (lossy), GIF (transparency) or PNG (transparency) for Web or screen.
  • TIF for printing.
  • EPS (transparency) for vector graphics such as logos.
  1. You may decrease file size (scale down) effectively without losing image quality, but you cannot increase file size (scale up) without losing image quality.
  2. Establishing shots establish the image context and scene; detail shots are tightly cropped close-ups.
  3. For news contexts, restrict photo editing to cropping and value adjustments such as dodging and burning. Any other kind of change risks charges of tampering with facts and truth.
  4. Journalism, advertising and public relations all define diversity as part of craft excellence so you have an ethical responsibility to be inclusive in designing with pictures of people and to avoid images that harm or stereotype.
  5. If you can’t shoot original photography for your design, then paying for digital stock photography may be a good option.
  6. If you work with photographers, don’t forget to get signed releases from all your models (professional or otherwise).
  7. Never use others’ images without permission.
  8. Effective alternatives to photos include: illustrations, clip art, video/multimedia and creative type.

Quiz Questions

The 5-minute Motivation to Read Quiz

Share three things you learned from the reading. Be specific.

Short Answer Quiz Questions

Explain what to look for when searching for a viable image or photo for
your design.

What are the best image resolutions for printing versus Web?

Explain the uses, pros and cons of the following file formats: JPG, GIF, TIF and EPS.

Discuss the importance of defining diversity as part of craft excellence for journalism, advertising and public relations.

Assuming photography is not an option, what are some other viable alternatives and why?

Multiple Choice Quiz Questions

Which file format might have prevented the problem of a white square appearing around a logo on a website?

  1. Vector
  2. GIF
  3. TIF
  4. JPG

Which of the following are acceptable ways to edit a photo in a news context?

  1. Flipping and dodging
  2. Cropping and flipping
  3. Adjusting value and flipping
  4. Adjusting value and cropping

If you want exclusive use of a stock image, then choose

  1. Rights-managed
  2. Royalty-free
  3. Comp images
  4. Rendered-type images

If you work with photographers

  1. Get their signed approvals on your concept before proceeding
  2. Don’t let them interfere with the design and production process
  3. Ask to see their credentials and union cards
  4. Agree ahead of time on timetables and deliverables